Pakistan's Ideological Ambiguities

Their Origin and Future - A Historical Perspective

(May 16, 2021)

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  1. What are the most significant (ideological) ambiguities prevailing in Pakistan today and how have they impacted our society?

  2. The “two-nation theory” was the basis for the demand of Pakistan. However, it has been a source of ambiguities, raising several fundamental questions: Were Muslims of India a nation? Are 205 million (2019) Muslims presently living in India, not a nation? Can we justify the two-nation theory after the separation of Bangladesh?

  3. Another source of ambiguity is the statements on what kind of Pakistan Mr Jinnah wanted. The August 11, 1947, speech (secularism), and several other speeches supporting Islamic law/Shariah. Mr Jinnah must have known that these two positions can never be reconciled? Why did he take opposing positions?

  4. According to his statements, Mr Jinnah wanted to keep the army out of politics, strictly subordinate to the civilian governments. Then how come that the army so quickly took over the system?

  5. What were the important external factors impacting the partition? (Soviet revolution and the fear of the spread of socialism. Change in the British and US positions). There’s also ambiguity on the role of the Left. What were the reasons for the Left to support the movement although it was led by the Right?

  6. Partition claimed more than a million lives, 10-20 million people were displaced, there was large scale violence. The tragic events and stories still haunt us. Yet almost none of it is linked to Mr Jinnah or his policies. Why?

  7. Pakistan has great potential in almost every field. However, something seems to be holding us back. What is it?

  8. Given all the ambiguities, what choices and options do we have that will determine Pakistan’s future?

  9. and many more....

A written report shall be uploaded soon